Sunday, July 26, 2009

Different Programming Languages

¯ PL/ 1 (Programming Language 1)
It is a business and scientific language, suitable for batch Processing and terminal usage. Design to include the best features of FORTRAN and COBOL.

¯ R.P.G. (Report Programming Generator)
R.P.G. is more of a system of preparing reports than a true language. It is widely used on mini and main frame to prepare business reports, accounts receivable, inventory listing, statement acts. R.P.G. is one of the easiest languages to learn.

¯ BASIC (Beginners All- purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
It is designed for easy data input, output and offers editing features.

¯ APL
APL is one of the most powerful interactive languages yet developed.

¯ PASCAL
It embodies the principles of structured programming long advocated by computer programming teachers and is a very powerful language.

¯ C Language
The C programming language is one of the “smallest” programming languages. C is the one of the most flexible and versatile of all programming languages. It is being used to develop operating systems, business applications,
text processing, database applications and spreadsheets.

¯ C++ Language
C++ was developed from the C programming language and, with few exceptions retrains as a subset. It is one of the recently developed languages supporting the new style of object oriented program designing.

¯ LISP (LIST Processing)
The language has become widely used fore computer science research, most prominently in the area of artificial intelligence.

¯ PROLOG (PROgram LOGic)
PROLOG is another language that has been used for artificial intelligence applications.

¯ Small Talk
Small Talk was developed at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center and implemented with the help of Alan Kay. It is an object oriented language used of Xerox’s original graphical windows systems.

¯ HTML (HyperText Mark up Language)
HTML is a text based mark up language that provides the understanding pinning for one of the most exiting information search and navigation environment called World Wide Web.
It is a way representing text and linking that text to other kinds of resources- including sound files, graphics files and multimedia files.
HTML can be considered as a text file that contains 2 kinds of text.
i. The content -Text or information for display or playback on the
clients.
Screen speakers
ii. The markup -Text or information to control the display or to
point to other.
Information on items in need of display

¯ JAVA
Most of the Java code will be implemented in browser based applets, the user must be running a browser that support Java called a “Java enable browser” such as Netscape navigator.

¯ Visual Basic
With visual basic Graphical User Interface (GUI) you can design screen presentations and menus using built in controls and tables. The GUI facilitates importing screen presentations, graphics and data from other applications.

Disadvantages

less efficiency

 4th Generation Languages
#. Introduce packages (Eg: Word, Excel, Power Point) (Can be used by non computer professionals.)
#. Can sort these languages in to fore categories,
i. Financial Planning / Modeling Languages
ii. Query Languages
iii. Report Generators
iv. Application Generators

 5th Generation Languages
#. Introduces languages for Artificial Intelligent (AI) programming.
Eg: LISP, PROLOG

 Special Purpose Languages
These are “Tailor made” for a particular type of problem.
Eg: Simulation, Controls and experiments

 Command Languages
These are languages used to control the operations of the computer. (languages to instruct the operating system)
Eg: Ms Access

Different types of High Level Languages

i. Procedural languages
Eg: - Pascal, COBOL, C
ii. Object oriented languages
Eg: - Smalltalk, Java, C++
iii. Visual languages
Eg: - Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual Foxpro, Visual Pascal
Advantages
User friendly
Lesser amount of instructions to be written
Machine independent
No H / W knowledge required

The Generations of Programming Languages

The programming languages have gone to several stages as below.

a. 1st Generation Languages – Machine Languages

b. 2nd Generation Languages – Low-Level or Symbolic Languages

c. 3rd Generation Languages – High-Level or Procedure Languages

d. 4th Generation Languages

e. 5th Generation Languages

¯ 1st Generation Languages
#. Programs were written in machine code.

#. Needed to remember machine codes and had to write many machine instructions

#. No need of translators. Therefore execution speed was high.

#. Programs were machine dependent.

#. Modifications of program were difficult.

¯ 2nd Generation Languages (Low-Level languages)
#. Programs were written in assembly language. Had to write too many instructions.
#.Translators were needed. (Assembler)
#. Programs were machine dependent.
#. Modifications of programs were difficult.

3rd Generation Languages (High-Level languages)
#. Introduce programming languages much more similar to English.
#. Have to write less number of instructions.
#. Programs were machine independent.
#. Modifications of programs were easy.
#. Can classify in to three categories as below,
i. Commercial Languages – Eg: - R.P.G., COBOL
ii. Scientific Languages – Eg: - FORTRAN, ALGOL, BASIC
iii. Multipurpose Languages – Eg: - PL/1

Tag

Assignment Lanka Tag Cloud
Computer Networks The History of Local Area Networks, LAN, The Topologies of a Networks, LANs describe different types of transmission Medias, Local Area Networks Access Methods, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect, Development of LAN Technologies. LAN -Token Ring, LAN Ethernet Digital, LAN - Ethernet Sun microsystems, LAN - Ethernet Mixed Environment, LAN - Token Ring was introduced by IBM LAN - IBM implementation of Token Ring, Token Ring Novell, LAN Token Ring - in a mixed environment, LAN - Fiber Distributed Data Interface, LAN - ATM, LAN Components, LAN Switching Methods, Virtual Local Area Network, Port based VLAN, Mac based VLAN, Protocol based VLAN, User Base VLAN, PC networks Components, PC networks Shared resources, PC Network operating systems, PC networks Novell Netware, PC networks Windows NT, PC networks IBM LAN Server Computer Programming Languages HTML Language, The Generations of Programming Languages, Different types of High Level Languages, Different types of High Level Languages Disadvantages
Computer Networks - IBM LAN Server, Windows NT Networks, Novell Netware, Network operating systems, Networks Shared, Networks Components, User Base, Protocol based, Mac based, Port based, VLAN, LAN Switching, LAN Components, ATM, Fiber Data, Token Ring, Token Ring Novell, IBM implementation, Ethernet, Sun microsystems, Ethernet Digital, Token passing, LAN Technologies, CSMA/CD, Access Methods, Transmission, Networks, The History of Local Area Networks, LAN