Sunday, July 26, 2009

The Generations of Programming Languages

The programming languages have gone to several stages as below.

a. 1st Generation Languages – Machine Languages

b. 2nd Generation Languages – Low-Level or Symbolic Languages

c. 3rd Generation Languages – High-Level or Procedure Languages

d. 4th Generation Languages

e. 5th Generation Languages

¯ 1st Generation Languages
#. Programs were written in machine code.

#. Needed to remember machine codes and had to write many machine instructions

#. No need of translators. Therefore execution speed was high.

#. Programs were machine dependent.

#. Modifications of program were difficult.

¯ 2nd Generation Languages (Low-Level languages)
#. Programs were written in assembly language. Had to write too many instructions.
#.Translators were needed. (Assembler)
#. Programs were machine dependent.
#. Modifications of programs were difficult.

3rd Generation Languages (High-Level languages)
#. Introduce programming languages much more similar to English.
#. Have to write less number of instructions.
#. Programs were machine independent.
#. Modifications of programs were easy.
#. Can classify in to three categories as below,
i. Commercial Languages – Eg: - R.P.G., COBOL
ii. Scientific Languages – Eg: - FORTRAN, ALGOL, BASIC
iii. Multipurpose Languages – Eg: - PL/1

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